Monday, November 20, 2017

Let Us Know More About Bharat Ratana Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

  Many firsts to the credit of Baba Sahib  Dr.B.R.Ambedkar.
                 (Reverential Tributes on his 61st  Mahaparinirwan Divas falling on 6th December,2017)                                                                                            
                     By  :- Er. H. R. Phonsa
It is prudently said that some  people are born great others are made great and still others become great by surmounting hurdles in their paths by themselves. Another philosopher said that some people read history, some teach history, some people make history and a few become history by themselves. As per both these statements Dr. Ambedkar fell in the last category of people who become history by overcoming all worldly barriers in his way. There was not even a singly favourable hurdle free step in his life.  There was not even a single act of his life which did not warrant him to use his highest skills. He rarely earned anything through favour or courtesy of others. All throughout his life he had to row against the currents. He was born in rags and died with rupees Forty thousand debt, bore loincloth in school , sat alone on the  corner of  classroom floor many times in outside school veranda , remained  thirsty for hours , hated as untouchable  by  his classmates, teachers, students, follow politicians including his office Brahmin peon. He slept on floor; lived night through on single loaf of bread but was first to reach daily the entry gate of London Museum and last to leave it.  He was termed as poor man’s lawyer despite his world class Law Degrees. He restored all lost hopes of Jedhe-Jawalkar and R D Karve by winning them  their cases in Poona Court. This proved Dr. Ambedkar’s superiority as an imminent lawyer. He has  earned the honour of  being  only one  Asian among the 12 Gay’s personalities whose portrait are displayed in the Gay’s Inn. He was called traitor by his opponents for his caring for those to whom even God never cared. He over worked at the cost of his health and life comforts including family life. He lost his poise and caring wife in her youth and four children (Three sons Romesh , Gangadhar, Rajratana    and one daughter named Indu ) for want  of medicines for their treatment. On the death of his sons son his wife had to tear out a part of her sari to cover the dead child before giving burial. But  Dr. Ambedkar never deviated from the set goal of  securing honouable life conditions to his people whom he loved even dearer to his life. They too stood by his in thick and thin. He often said he was born to safe guard interests of untouchable and he was prepared to offer any sacrifice. He remained awake even during nights to see that their interests were not sabotaged. He never acted against the interests of his country. He said in clear terms in Bombay Legislative Council as its member in 1927 “Whenever there is a conflict between my personnel interests and the interests of country as a whole, I have always placed the claims of the country above my personnel claims --- when there is a conflict in interests between country and the Untouchables, the untouchable’s interests will take precedence over the interests of the country”.  In another statement he said that he was Indian in the beginning, in the middle and in the end.  He said he was not like those who are the Hindu, the Muslim, the Sikh, the Christian and alike first then Indian. Against all odds he did what he thought fit for his peoples and country. He struck to his words and fulfilled promises  made with his people. Dr. Ambedkar was convinced that Hindus shall never cherish getting the human rights to Depressed classes people. Show of  love of Hindus  for the Dalits  was to use them for their numbers and for their  unpaid services. Mahatama Gandhi a Snatani Hindu to core has acknowledged that Dr. Ambedkar  was the greatest Challenge to Hinduism. Dr. Ambedkar  declared in 1935 that he shall not die as a Hindu and he full filled this promise on 14th October 1956 only  52 days before his death by embracing Buddhism along with nearly ten Lacs of his followers .  Such en-mass religion  change by choice  was perhaps  the only example in world history. He was opponent to religious superstitions and rigidity. He was against none but suppression, hate and denial of political, social, educational and economic rights to Dalits including women. He waslower caste Mahar Dalit but adopted his surname “Ambedkar” from his soft hearted Brahmin teacher and  he re- married Dr. Sharda Kabir ( later  Mrs.Savita Ambedkar)a Maharashtrian Brahmin Saraswati  bride.  Some of good hearted friends, colleagues and teachers were from higher castes, so he enjoyed confidence of all those who stood for welfare of humanity at large. Had he not born at the right hour of history, the present history of poor, women, unprivileged, hated Dalit untouchables and working class people would have been completely different with their slavery chains intact andthe Constitutional rights for millions would have been buried deep in the free Indian soil? Whatever he did during his life he did with conviction, whatever he spoke or wrote, it was historic truth backed by deep studied. He remained loyal to his people and his country, the Bharat.  He never said a word against any religion, but challenged religion based inhuman norms, “ isms”  in them of hate to wards humanity more so to  their own religious fellows, who did not toe their( Brahmins) wrong convictions. He was Masiha or saviour of poor, deprived, hated and neglected humanity. He was the only highest qualified academician, who entered the Indian politics. Politicians of his times proved dwarfs to his qualifications, qualities, character, labour and steadfastness to commitments.  Despite all odds Bharat Ratana Baba Sahib Bhimrao Ambedkar was credited with such unique qualities that whatever field he touched, he left on it indelible marks of his scholarly intellect. He was born on 14th April,1891 in a poor Dalit Mahar family carrying history of military service. Bhimrao Ambedkar’s grandfather Maloji Sakhpal was a Havaldar in the British Army and his father Ramji Sakhpal was Subedar Major in Bombay Army of the East India Company. Dr. Ambedkar too joined service as the Military Secretary to the   Maharaja of Baroda, who had granted scholarship to Bhim for his higher studies abroad. Later Dr. Ambedkar was to be appointed as Finance Minister of the Baroda state but the unbearable caste based hate and prejudices forced him to soon resign. The arrogant behaviour of a Brahmin peon with Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar deprived, the kingdom of Baroda  of the scholarly services  of economist of world repute. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar never compromised with his self honour and honour of his people. He preached to his fellowmen to live with dignity keeping spine erect. He succeeded in getting legal provisions and privileges for his people in t he Constitution of free India of which he was the Father. The worst enemy of Dalits and women, the Practice of untouchability in any of its form was made punishable offence in the Constitution of India. This negated the inhuman Hindu Laws of Manu. Earlier on 25th December 1925 Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar had burnt the Manusmriti page by page in full public view.
 Dr .Ambedkar was the first in his community to pass Matriculation Examination in 1907 .He was first Dalit to get education in foreign lands in one of most prestigious world Universities like Columbia University USA, London School Of Economics U.K, Bonn University in Germany,  Bar at the Gray’s Inn. He was rare of rarest Indian who obtained M.A; PhD ; DSc.; Barrister –at- Law; LL.D; D. Litt and many more Honorary Degrees from many  foreign Universities. It is also a hard fact that despite being a world class supper human, he was not given any befitting honour by his Alma Mater the University Of Bombay during his life times.  He was a reputed scholar in Economics, Political Sciences, Law, Constitutional Law, Anthropology, and Religion Philosophy.  He was a great teacher also, backed by his deep studies of the subjects he taught.  Perhaps he was  first among Dalits  to be appointed professor ( June 1928 to March 1929) and  to  occupy the chair of the  Principal of the Government Law College Bombay( Now Mumbai)  affiliated to Bombay University June 1,1935 to May 1938 where he was hated during his studies.
 Dr. Ambedkar observed that the journalism which was earlier a profession had turned into business exploitation in the hands of capitalists. Dr Ambedkar sensed the need of a news paper of his own and said a leader without a news paper was like a bird without wings. He was perhaps the first Dalit to enter the  world of journalism  when launched on   the Mook Nayak ( Leader of dumb)  on January 31st,1920 ,on 3rd April,1927 the Bahiskrit Bharat( Excluded India), the Samta( Equality) the Janta ( People) on 24th November,1930,The Prubh Bharat ( Awakened Bharat ).  His writings in these news papers spread his message very quickly among the depressed class masses.  He stated his news papers much earlier than Mahatama Gandhi’s the Harijan, started in February 1933.
Baba Sahib Dr. Ambedkar was first Dalit to be awarded Bharat Ratana in 1990 posthumously after a lapse of 34 years after his death. This shows apathy of the ruling parties towards their National celebrities.
 Hardly anybody could imagine that a Mahar Subedar Major’s 14th child Bhiva  ( Bhimrao’s first name) could one day divert the world attention towards the deplorable  condition of Indian Untouchable millions, seeking constitutional rights for them  in  Round Table conferences called by the mighty British Crown’s Government  in their heartland . Dr. Ambedkar was one of the two Untouchables who were first to be nominated to represent the slaves to the British Indian Slaves. Dr. Ambedkar’s  courage , convections  backed by  world’s highest degrees  forced the  British Crown’s Government along with Indian monarchs, politicians  to listen the woes  of half feed, half naked, illiterates socially lowest of the low through their own representative who had studied world history in foreign lands. He also warned the British to leave India soon as they have failed to make any improvement in the, social, religious, political, educations and economic conditions of poor particularly untouchable millions during their rule.   In the three Round Table conference in London Dr. Ambedkar’s narrations were so logical and force full that  all eye brows were raised to listen the plight of those who had never been represented before, in history in any such official forum.  About his narrations news items were carried by news papers world over with editorials written in praise of the  new found leaders of Indian untouchables.  Not only Dr. Ambedkar’s views were highly acclaimed in all world spheres but they brought dividends for Untouchable in the future governments Of India.  The problems of untouchable were brought on world forum for finding their solutions speedily. This way the British were made to realise their folly of siding with the the exploiters of Dalits by giving  them treatment even worst than animals.
 The British were made to find space for Indian untouchable in the future governance of India. To give political representation to untouchables Simon Commission was established. Dr. Ambedkar’s plea before Simon Commission with other organisations and leaders of Depressed classes was so forceful that the British India government announced   Communal Award   outlining the method  of reserving seats in representative bodies with a right  of  duel  votes to untouchables to use in the future election. This established the existence of untouchables as a definite and separate identity and equal stake holders in the future constitution. Another feather in Dr. Ambedkar’s cap was added.  
On this Mahatama Gandhi backed by Hindu reactionary forces  , under took fast unto death in Yarwada Jail Poona ( Now Pune). Mahatma Gandhi was against granting any political rights to untouchables, saying theirs was an internal social problems to be solved within the frame work of Hindu  Verna system. Dr. Ambedkar disputed Gandhi’s contentions by saying that if it was so, why hate against untouchables had remained intact for centuries. Tremendous   pressure was mounted against Ambedkar to save Mahatma’s life.  Therefore the Poona pact was signed by Dr. Ambedkar under duress to save Gandhi’s life but standing on equal pedestal with those who had denied  evening touch shadow of untouchable but to talk of granting any  human right to them for centuries. Reservation in the provincial and central legislatures, appointments in public services and local bodies with removal of disabilities of the depressed classes were the direct result of the Poona Pact. Denial of  double election and duel voting as per Communal Award or separate electorates, gave  a chance to upper caste political body heads to select dummy candidates from scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes  to contest the reserved seats and be a party to denial of Constitutional Rights to the Dalit communities.
  Dr. Ambedkar himself a great  lover of books and a writer with millions of  readership was the first to burn the Hindu Code book “ Manusmiriti” as Manu, its writer claimed  “It  contain laws  with Divine sanction”. Dr. Ambedkar disputed Manu’s claims by saying .it was devised to give sanctions of inhuman suppression of untouchables and women. He was also first in the history of caste struggle to sip water of Choudar Tank   (  Water Tank) by organising Satyagraha. Taking water from Choudar Tank was banned from centuries for the untouchable Hindus. He was hurt gravely in the melee but did not lose heart to fight law suit instituted against him and his followers. It took him ten years to win the law suit. To register untouchable’s just right to worship in Hindu temples, he organised Kalaram Temple entry struggle on 2nd March, 1930 with his follow men and women. This Dalit organised struggle was carried for five long years but caste Hindus did not yield any ground for untouchable’s right to worship in the Kalaram temple. Even now after nine decades of the temple entry struggle for five years  superstitious Hindus do not allow the Untouchable to enter many of their temples.
Dr. Ambedkar claimed Mahatama jyotirao Phule (1827-1890) as his political guru. When Phule was convinced that illiteracy was main reason of untouchable slavery he along with his wife Mata Savitribai Phuley opened 18 schools in and around Poona ( now Pune) starting from January  1st  in 1848’.Some of these  schools were excursively for girl students of all castes. After a centaury of opening schools by Phuley Couple  Dr. Ambedkar founded People’s Education Society on 8th July, 1945 base on five principles  namely the ideal of knowledge, the ideals of  compassion, the ideal of democracy, the ideal of equality and the ideal of justice is parents.  The primary aim of this society is to promote higher education among the poorer people in general and Buddhists Scheduled Castes a,Scheduled Tribes and other backward Classes in particular. The Peoples Education Society founded “The Milind College, Aurangabad Maharashtra” a most backward area of Maharashtra state. Its foundation was laid by Dr. Ambedkar on 9th July,1953. The People’s Education Society is now manning a large chain of quality educational Institutions giving employment to thousands of youth.
A few more fields where Dr Ambedkar was also first  in his achievements
·        Dr. Ambedkar was youngest of  the 14th Child of his parents.
·        Birth control:-In 1927 there  were only three Indians who were talking about birth control and warning that India will face consequences of neglecting these reforms. These three people were J R D Tata, Dr  B.R. Babasaheb  and R D Karve. Dr Ambedkar locked horns with those, who in the name of tradition and religion, opposed sex education," said historian Hari Narke. R D Karve published a magazine called Samaj Swasthya (society's health) from July 15, 1927 to 1953. The magazine was dedicated to sex and health education to curve growing Indian population It preached birth control methods .Some orthodox  Puneites dragged R D Karve to court, accusing him of spreading and encouraging "obscenity" by talking about sex education. Dr. Ambedkar as   R.D. Karve’s advocate won him the case. ( TOI Pune City edition Apr 14, 2016,)
·         Personal collection of books: 50000 (excluding the collection of  books, which were lost when the ship on which they were dispatched  from London was   torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine)
 Perhaps  there was  nobody else in the world with this much collection of personal books in the human history?
·         To challenge discriminatory rules and systems like a Khoti System,  Mahar Vatan, bonded labour, unequal wages to women workers, long hours of labour in factories or houses on nominal wages, non existence of maternity leave for women workers, non entry of depressed classes students into  government funded education institutions,  non employment of depressed class persons in higher posts in government services,  non payment for over time in factories.
·         To advocate of nationalisation of agriculture, land to be vested in government, paid maternity leave, political rights to depressed classes people,  paid over time in offices and factories at the double rate of normal wages, no religious interference  in government affairs and such other  government progressive measures.
·         To launch a political party  ( I L P) of Dalits for the Dalits and by Dalits. He won 17 seats in 1937 Provincial Elections including 3 from general constituencies. This was history of its sorts for Dalits to occupy the same political pedestal as their opponents from upper 
·         To be appointed as Member  of Viceroy’s Executive council as Labour, Employment, CPWD  Minister from among Dalits. Dr. Ambedkar wrote the whole text single-handedly, as a duty to parliament, in-spite of his bad health and busy personal social service.
·         To earn honour to be  the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee to draft Constitution for free India.
·        The First union Minister in the world history who resigned when his drafted Bill,  Viz.The  Hindu Code Bill for rights of women was not passed by parliament due to caste and sex prejudices of orthodox Upper Caste Hindus in and outsides of Parliament .
·         He was first in history of Bombay on whose death Bombay witnessed largest funeral procession , where over five lacs  Dalits embraced Buddhism  in one go.
·         He was perhaps first Minister of Indian Union, who was not allowed to address the Parliament to announce his resignation as Law Minister Of India. The Constitution he fathered was quoted to hinder to his last address as Union Law Minister.
·        As Labour Executive Member of the Viceroy Lord Wavel ‘s council( 1942 and 1946) . He was sworn as the Labor Member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council in July 7, 1942. Dr. Ambedkar did a pioneering work  . Dr. Baba saheb Ambedkar believe that caste is not merely the division of Labour but division of labourers based upon the graded inequality. He laboured hard to framed Labour benefit laws as an Executive Council Member.  Detail of the Laws framed during Dr. Ambedka’s tenure as member of the Executive Council Council.
·        Reduction in Factory Working Hours (8 hours duty) : Today the working hours in India per day is about 8 hours. We do not know that how many Indians know, that Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was the Savior of Labors in India. He brought 8 hours duty in India and change the working time from 14 hours to 8 hours and became a light for workers in India. He brought these laws  in the 7th session of Indian Labor Conference in New Delhi, November 27, 1942.
·        Health Insurance Scheme.
·        Labor Welfare Funds
·        Provident Fund Act.
·        Factory Amendment Act.
·        Labour Disputes Act.
·        Minimum wage
·        Dearness Allowance (DA) to Workers.
·        Leave Benefit to Piece Workers.
·        Revision of Scale of Pay for Employees.
·        Coal and Mica Mines Provident Fund:
·        Creator of Damodar valley project, Hirakund project, The Sone River valley project
·        The Indian Trade Unions (Amendment) Bill:
·        Indian Statistical Law.
·        Post War Economic Planning.
·        India’s Water Policy and Electric Power Planning
·        The original source of reference for all the 13 Finance Commission reports, in a way, are based on Dr. Ambedkar’s P.hd thesis, "The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India", written in 1923.
·        Laying basis of establishing the RBI. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) came into picture according to the guidelines laid down by Dr Ambedkar? Reserve Bank of India was conceptualised as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr Ambedkar in front of the Hilton Young Commission. When this commission came to India under the name of “Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance”, each and every member of this commission were holding Dr Ambedkar’s book named “The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution.” (VELIVADA).           Despite this the Indian currency Notes Carry Mahatama Gandhi’s Portrait on them and Rabindernath Tagore as Brand Ambassador of SBI ,However GOI has issued set of 10 coins in honour of Dr.Ambedkar on his 125th birth anniversary
·        Employees State Insurance (ESI.
·        Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar framed many laws for Women Labors in RBI India :
·        Mines Maternity Benefit Act.
·        Women Labor welfare fund.
·        Women and Child, Labor Protection Act.
·        Maternity Benefit for women Labour.
·         Restoration of Ban on Employment of Women on Underground Work in Coal Mines,
·        Indian Factory Act.
·        National Employment Agency (Employment Exchange
·         Equal wages for equal work irrespective of Sex and caste of the labourer was brought in India.
·        He inspired the Modern Buddhist Movement in India.
·        Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Ambedkar was  a rare jewel and earned uncountable first in his life and after. Many surveys have been carried world over after Baba Sahib’s death which selected him as first among many world personalities.
·        Ambedkar was opposed to Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, which gives a special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
·        Dr. Ambedkar the Father of Indian Constitution was voted  undisputed as the  “Greatest Indian” in a poll Spearheaded by history TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly two crore voters took part in the voting. The results were declared on 12 August 2012.
·        Dr. Ambedkar the Messiah of Dalits and oppressed world garnered the second  highest          ( Next only to Mr. M.K. Gandhi, the Mahatma)  jury votes in a three pronged process which gave equal weight -age to the popular vote, a jury and on ground poll. The poll was conduced by A+E Networks,TV18.
·        Dr. Ambedkar  ‘s name was placed at serial number ONE out of the 100 most  pioneering students of  USA’s most prestigious Columbia University since its start 250 years ago in2004. To commemorate this event they had built a memorial inscribing  a list of 100 pioneering students of this university. This elite list contains names of Dr. Baba sahib Ambedkar , Ex-Presidents of 6 different countries, 3 American Ex-Presidents & some NOBEL prize winners.
To arrange the order of names of these very eminent pioneers , the Columbia University had formed a committee of scholars.......and this committee proposed to place name of 
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar at the top ( first). This memorial stands tall and depicts the glory of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar & his works.
                 Dr.Ambedkar  said“ A great man is different from an eminent one in that he is ready to be the servant of the society”. He himself qualified this definition.
Words :- 3900                                 Er. H. R. Phonsa
                                  The writer  can be contacted on +919419134060

                                           E-mail :-  hrphonsa@gmail.com

Thursday, October 19, 2017

Amar Sheed Zenab Ashfaq Ullah Khan

                                            

   Enlarged and updated                        
                                     Tributes To           
                          
                 Amar Sheed Zenab Ashfaq Ullah Khan
(on his 118 th birthday falling on 22nd October 2017)
Khamoosh Hazrat Khamoosh Hasmat  (pen name of A-U Khan)
Agar Hai Jajba Wattan Ka Dil Main ,
 Saza Ko Pohnchain Ge Apni  Beshak
Zo aaj Hamko Mitta Rhe Hain,
 Bujdiloon Hi Ko Sada Moyt Se Darte Dekha
Goo  Ke Soo Bar Unhain Roz  Hi  Marte Dekha,
  Wattan Hamara Rahe Saj Kam Aur Azad
 Hamara Kaya Hai Agar Hum Rahe Na Rahe Na Rahe ,
 Kass Lee Hai Kamar Ab To Kush Kar Ke Dekhain Ge
  Azad Hee Hoo Leinge Ya Sar hee Kata Deinge.
This is the Urdu poem composed by Ashfaq Ullal Khan, who earned the supreme distinction of being the first Muslim youth to be hanged for the cause of the freedom of Mother India. Ashfaq Ullal Khan imbibed the spirit of Patriotism, Unity, Communal Harmony & supreme sacrifice for the country. He falls in the of great revolutionaries & martyrs like  Amar Sheed Bhagat singh, sukhdev,Rajguru , Jatinder Nath Dass,   Veerangini Jalkari Bhai, Virsa Munda,Mangle Panday,Dulia Dhobi,Mangal Mochi, Kammon kesri Khushi Ram ,Jatra Bhagat , Udham singh ,  Abdul Gafar Khan,  Guru Ram Singh Kuka, Begum Hazrat Mahal,Arun Asaf AlimChander Sekhar Azad ,Neta ji subash chander bose,  Veeragini Mahaveeri Devi& lakhs other  unknown heroes of Indian Independence Movement.
                     A very handsome revolutionary son of Mother India, Ashfaq Ulla Khan, was born on October 22nd , 1900 at Shahjahanpur (U.P) in a  respectable &  well known Muslim family. He was son of revered  zenab Shafiq Ullah Khan and  Begam Mazhoor-Un-Nisa.His father was teacher by profession . Ashfaq Ulla Khan was the youngest of his  six children of his father.   His elder brother‘s was  Zenab Riyasat Ullah Khan who was advocate by profession. His birth was celebrated with a great pump & show. He was a student of the Mission High school at Shahjahanpur, one class junior to another great revolutionary Pandit Ram Parshad Bismil., a staunch Arya Samaji Hindu. From his childhood  Ashfaq Ullal Khan started taking interest  in  the Freedom Movement & the activities of the freedom fighters moved his tender mind. Both he and   Ram Prasad Bismil made unparallel sacrifices for the Indian Freedom Movement from the British yoke.
                         Ashfaq Ulla Khan left school during Khilafat Movement in 1920 to devote himself fully to educate his countrymen for the Freedom Movement. Many of his near friends advised him not to jump into freedom movement, which was full of difficulties & sufferings including jailed life & even death sentence. But Ashfaq Ullal Khan was made of different stuff, who had decided to sacrifice for the freedom of his Motherland.
                           To raise money for purchasing weapons for the revolutionaries it was decided (although Ashfaq Ullal Khan differed initially, but agreed with the majority decision) to loot a train carrying Govt. Treasury The train was successfully looted on August 8, 1925 between Alamnagar & Kakoi stations.  Among the train robbers were Sachinder Nath Bakshi; Rajinder Nath Lahiri; Pandit Ram Parshad Bismil & Ashfaq ullah Khan. The train robbery sent shock waves to the British administration & praises for the revolutionaries. Two close confidents of Pt. RPBismil leaked the information & got arrested some revolutionaries, but Ashfaq ullah Khan escaped  to Daltonganj in Bihar, where he succeeded in getting employment in  a school  posing as a Hindu of Mathura. Now he wanted to go abroad to study engineering which would further help him in the freedom struggle. He went to Delhi for this purpose.. But alas again a close confident Pathan friend of Ashfaq ullah Khan betrayed & got Ashfaq ullah Khan arrested. Ashfaq ullah Khan was brought to Lahore, tried along with Sachinder Nath Bakshi in Kakori railway station case & sentenced to death. His advocate  brother Zenab Riyasat Ullah Khan was his defense councilor.
 In an Urdu poem written from his prison cell by Ashfaq ullah Khan with  Ram Prasad Bismil on the night of 18 December, 1928 (They were executed on 19th December 1927), he expressed his wish that despite the fact as a Muslim he did not believed in rebirth after death, but if he meets “Khudda” ( God Almighty) after death, he shall  make an express request to Him to grant him another births  in lieu of  “Jannat” so that he could  come again and again to liberate his mother land. In this hand written Urdu poem opening lines he said he will go empty hands with the pains that he did not know when his country shall be liberated. A day before his death he told, to his friends who came to see him in the cell, jokily that he was getting married next day.
                         Ashfaq ullah Khan’s love for his motherland and his commitment for its freedom from the foreign yoke can be made out from the  letter written by him from his Jail cell to his nephews.
 Translation of the Urdu letter written by Asfaq Ullah Khan  to his nephews  from the Jail.
   “I have been accused of loving my country and for that crime ,I have been given  the death sentence. The only wish I have from you both is that after my death you must read the proceedings of my case, then you will come to know to what extent I loved my motherland as a true Muslim”.
          On  Monday the19th December, 1927, the day of his execution Ashfaq ullah Khan got up early in the morning, took bath offered Namaz & read verses from the Holy Quran. At 6 in the morning he was taken to the altar platform for execution. He was walking carrying a Quran in a bag hanging from his shoulder & was reciting its verses. After kissing the noose he put it around his neck as if it was a garland of flowers. He said “I have never stained my hands with the blood of any man. I will get justice before God. All the charges leveled against me are wrong.” After kissing the noose he put it around his neck as if it was a garland of flowers and was hanged Faizabad Jail British India. His body was taken by his relatives to Shahjahanpur to perform his last rights
                        Amar Shaheed Ashfaq ullah Khan was a true freedom fighter & a great secular. He saved an Arya Samaji  temple from being burnt by rioters. He said “All places of worship, irrespective of the religion, they belong to, are dear to life more than his life.” In his last prayer he prayed to God to bless Hindus & Muslims with better sense so that they don’t fight among themselves and work untidily for the Freedom Movement of the country .                                                         Er HEM RAJ PHONSA.
Dated 17-10-2017                     Ex Executive Engineer Jammu(J&K,India )
                                                     Contact +919419134060 
Referance; -  Ashfaq ullah Khan, A Great Revolutionary & Freedom Fighter, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting GOI.
ii) Maps of India.com



    

  

Sunday, June 18, 2017

ACHHUTANAND SWAMI JI 1879 tO-1933) His 84 th Death Anniversary falls on 20th July 2017 ( Corrected and updated.


Image result for swami achhutanandWith the dawn of nineteenth century the clouds of suppression and ignorance on Indian Dalits started receding. This gave way to emergence of untouchable consciousness and a feeble political voice to these millions of soul covering skeletons. The polite challenge put to Hindu religion laws of scriptures by the Bhagti Movement Saints like Namdev, Guru Ravidas, Kabir Sahib, Guru Nanak Chokhamela started  spouting now into clear resistance by their Dalit followers. This gave way to uprising by Dalits under the guidance of new religious and political leaders. Emergence on the scene of the leaders like Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Swami Achhutanand 'Harihar', and Narayana Guru, Guru Ghasidas Ji Maharaj, Vitthal Ramji Shinde Dr. Ambedkar and others gave directions to the upturning masses. The roll player in this uprising by Swami Achhutanand 'Harihar', was marvelous.
Besides being a poet, dramatist, historian and propagandist Swami Achhutanand founded the Adi Hindu Mahasabha , an organization of the Depressed Classes. Swami Achhutanand also founded the news paper Adi- Hindu. There was similarity in the opinions of Swami Achhutanand and Bharat Ratna Baba Saheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar about Dalit literature and Dalit empowerment. Both worked for the cooperative partnership in associations and agitations that took up the causes of the Dalits. Both worked for the empowerment of Dalits believing that Dalit problem  struggle was not only for equality of political, economic status but social, cultural, educational  partnership in state finance affairs besides providing them dignified employment opportunities.
Swami Achhutanand, a chamar( leather crafts man) by caste, was born on 6th May, 1879 at his maternal grandfather's village Saurikh Tehsil Chhibramau District Farukhabad (U.P.) Swami Ji’s father revered Shri Moti Ram and mother Shrimati Ram Piari. Hira Lal was his childhood name. His parents and uncle had left the village due to some quarrel with the Brahmins on caste basis before the mutiny of 1857. They migrated to village Umari Tehsil Sirsaganj of District Mainpuri, situated to the north-east of Agra (U.P). Swami Ji's father and uncle went to Denali and joined the army. His elder brother Baant Lal was subedar in army and his uncle Kaluram  too was in army. Hira Lal’s  father passed away when he was still young and needed fatherly care. However his uncle Mathura Prasad shouldered this responsibility. Later Mathura Prasad got elevated to the position of Subedar in the army. Subedar Mathura Parsad helped Hira Lal, in his education at Nasirabad, Ajmer (Rajasthan).
Hira Lal was very brilliant at school. But he discontinued his education when he was just 14 years of age due to financial distress. Till then he was well versed with working knowledge of eight Indian languages- Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian, Marathi, Bangla and Punjabi etc. He also studied deeply  religious philosophy.
Hira Lal got married to Smt. Hira Bai some sources name her Durgabai and they were blessed with four daughters (Sushila Bai, Vidyawati, Shanti Bai, name of 4th could not be traced). His one daughter got married to Sh. Mangal Singh Jatav of Tikonia, Murar District Gwalior (MP). Mr. Jatav rose to the rank of parliamentary secretary in MP government.
Swami Ji was a true feminist rightist. His life was solely dedicated to the cause of  upliftment of women and untouchables. Swami Ji also changed his name to "Achhutanand" derived from Achhut or untouchable". Swami Ji lived in the hearts of illiterate, literate,  poor and rich untouchables.
After leaving school, he joined a group of sadhus (hermits) and left for a pilgrimage with them. He was in their company for about ten years. Thereafter, he came under the influence of swami Sachitanand ji of Arya Samaj and Hira Lal joined him. After joining the Arya Samaj, his name Hiralal was changed to Swami Hariharanand.  During his associations with Arya Samaji’s and their thought process Swami Hariharanand was convinced that Arya Samaj was meant to save Hinduism nay Dalits by introducing certain minor reforms in the Hindu Society but failed to change the society radically, his ultimate goal of life. Their reforms in the Hindu religion were aimed at blocking conversion of Dalits to other religions like Islam, Christianity, Sikhism , Buddhism . So he lost love and  faith in Arya Samaj philosophy. Swami Hariharanand  wanted to work towards the annihilation of Hindu Caste system which supports untouchbility among  the Hindus. When he was convinced that his goal cannot be achieved by mere lip sympathy, he left Arya Samaj and started Adi-Hindu movement for upliftment of the depressed Classes. Adi- means original inhabitants of India now also called  Dalit,Mulnivasi etc. In a Shastrarth (philosophical debate) arranged on 22 October 1921 at Delhi, he defeated Pandit Akhilanandji an arya samaji. He rightly came to the conclusion that unless the untouchables secured political rights, there would be no salvation for them. His name Swami Hariharanand was again changed to Swami Achhutanand. Now he was with the other stalwarts of Adi-Hindu Movement namely Gopal Baba Warangalkar (Maharashtra), Bhagaya Reddy verma (1888-1939) and B. Shayam Sunder both from AP and a Punjabi Chamar strategist Babu Mangoo Ram Magowalia  (1886 –1980).
Swami Achhutanand a socio-religious revolutionary founded the Adi-Hindu Movement in unison with others to achieve equality, liberty, fraternity and justice for the under privilege untouchable Indian citizens. Indian government recognized the Adi-Hindu Movement in 1923. He also proclaimed his 7 main commands of the Adi-Hindu Movement and explained them as:
1.     There is one God, who is non- attributor (loosely meaning universal creator , no worldly means can    attract  or influence  Him or He cannot be attained by observing worldly religious rituals , dogmas, austerities ).
2.          The religion of Saints is the true religion of India.
4.          All human beings are equal. To treat someone as high and another as low is wrong.
 5.    All the Gods enunciated by Brahmanism are untrue. They ought be discarded.
6. The so-called untouchables are the original inhabitants of Bharat i.e. India.
7.  People should be free from all passions, greed, pride and malice.
8.  Their (aboriginal  inhabitants’) human rihts, glorious culture and civilization should be restored and developed.
The main centre of the Adi-Hindu movement was at Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh and from here he propagated the principles of Adi-Hindu movement in India. Sensing trouble for the Caste Hindus and their political party Congress from the Adi-Hindu movement, Mahatma Gandhi's son Dev Dass Gandhi called a meeting in the house of his( Gandhi’s) confidant at Kanpur where he called Swami Ji and asked him to stop his movement in the interests of Caste Hindus and Congress party. Dev Dass proposed to Swami Ji certain financial allurements as well. On this Soami Ji took out a dried loaf of bread from his pocket saying "It is worth more than, what Mr. Gandhi, you propose. I will not compromise with the interests of my brethren". Shri Dev Dass Gandhi then started calling Soami Ji as "Juta (Shoe) Nand Soami" This story has resemblance to Guru Nanak Dev's refusal of rich food offered by one Dewan Malik Bhago and instead took dried poor quality flour bread of poor carpenter Bhai Lalo.  
Swami Achhutanand was a great rationalist of his times. He viewed any principle and policy from utility point of view. He tried to eradicate irrationalism, sub-casteism and superstitions from among the Depressed Classes. He advised Dalits that the caste system had been purposely supported by the foreign invaders and rulers on India therefore it should be given up. The depressed Classes should not accept such an ugly system, which differentiates man from man. He felt that the main objective of the untouchables


was to attain emancipation from caste based oppression, which could be possible only by their involvement in gainful politics. They should be free from the yoke of Manu made Caste system. Dalits ( Castes falling under present day SCs, STs and OBCs  catagories ) should put a united struggle for achieving their human rights. In order to abolish sub-castes among the Dalits, he invariably used to take every alternate meal with a man of different caste. He exhorted them to abolish sub-castes by inter sub-caste marriages. He used to tell his people to seek help from Christians or Muslims if needed. They should take the help of Christian missionaries to educate their children.
Previously, his own near one's had been reluctant to accept his thoughts. When he was in Agra for the purpose of his mission, he was driven out by the men of his own community. But later seeing his work he became very popular among the depressed classes and attracted many people towards his movement.

When the Prince of Wales was to visit India in October 1921-March 1922, the Congress Party decided to boycott him. However, Swami Achchutanand and his followers decided to accord a grand welcome to him on the occasion of his visit to Delhi. Therefore, a huge rally was arranged at Delhi on 17th February 1922. Swami Ji submitted written memorandum having seventeen demands of Dalits for the sympathetic consideration of the British Crown. The memorandum contained the following demands:-

1.          The Adi-Hindus must be given separate electorate and separate representations.
For the progress of the untouchables, government must open schools and colleges and give admission  in them to untouchables.
2.          There must be a strict law to annihilate the untouchbility.
3.          The educated untouchables must be absorbed in the Government jobs.
5.          There should be nomination of untouchables in the municipal committees. district boards, village Panchayat, town areas and notified areas committees  .
6.          Untouchables should be granted liberty to do business  and shop keeping.
7.          There must be ban on forced labour.
8.          There must be equal rights for untouchables as compared to the "swarnas or Upper caste" Hindus.
9.          There must be untouchables' representation in government and non-government committees in proportionate to their population.
10.         There must be stipends for the untouchable students.
11.         There must be exclusive  colleges for the untouchables where theirs population is in majority.
12.         There must be recruitment for untouchables in the police and army.
13.         There should be increase in the labour rate.
14.         The  chowkidars  of the  villages  should be  untouchables.
15.         Untouchables must be allotted land on lease.
16.         There should be representation of untouchables in the state assemblies.
17.         The above demands should be implemented in the princely states also.
In reply the Prince said that, "I thank you very warmly for the very kind and enthusiastic welcome which you have given me on two occasions at Delhi. I much value your good wishes; I wish  the communities whom you represent all prosperity and well being". (Walker David, The Prince of India 1923, P.289). As the Prince used word Sawraj( self rule) in his address so  Swami Achhutanand  spoke about  his contemplated full Swaraj (Self Rule) or freedom to all and not just a few castes. Soami Ji's Sawaraj was different and more practical than as it was visualized by Bal Ganga Dhar Tilk and congress party. Swami Achhutanand thought that the communities so far deprived of human rights were really the claimants of Swaraj. Swaraj in which the untouchables had no place, was meaningless.
He was against landlordism. He criticized the government for its policy of conferring honors on landlords who exploit the untouchables, kill their kith and kins and attack the chastity of their womenfolk. He stressed for stopping such honour to those who  practiced in human treatment to untouchables.
A special session of the Depressed Classes representatives from all over India was convened at New Delhi in December 1927 to discuss the question of reforms in view of the arrival of the Simon Commission. Swami Achhutanand was Chairman of the Reception Committee of the convention and Sh. M. C. Rajah presided over the convention. The convention, demanded separate electorate and increased seats in the legislatures for the Depressed Classes.
Dr Ambedkar and Soami Ji were working for the upliftment of Dalits and both shared views on the Dalit problems and their solution. Both these Dalit emancipators met for the first time some time in Bombay in 1928 in Adi Hindu Samelan. There after both continued liaison and Swami Achhutanand Ji participated in the Jatav (Chamars) Sammelan in 1922 at Delhi  and gave some revolutionary suggestions. In 1925, he migrated and settled at Benajhabar, Idgah, Kanpur (UP) where Mr. Girdhari Bhagat donated him the residential plot. He also launched the Adi-Hindu Hindi paper.
The strength of the Adi-Hindu Movement can be gauged from the facts that in its procession in Allahabad on 26th December, 1925 over 25,000 dedicated participants took part. This procession was led by Swami Ji himself with G A. Gavai (Nagpur) on monocycles followed by a sea of Dalit humanity. On 27th-28th December 1927, a public meeting was held, where more than 350 delegates from Punjab attended. The Pandal was represented by delegates from, Bihar, Rajasthan, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Poona, Hyderabad, Bombay and other states.
In 1927 at Kanpur, Swami Ji said in a public conference," We Dalits also demand a complete Independence as the Hindus and the Muslims demand. We are the rightful owner of independence." Swami Achhutanand met the Simon Commission on 30th Nov 1930 at Lucknow. His comrades who accompanied Swami Ji were Tilak Chander Kuril, Girdhari Lal Bhagat, Laxman Parsad, Karorhi Mall Khatik and others. Dr. Ambedkar also met the Simon Commission with his comrades as he was then President of Bahashkrit Hitkarini Sabha and submitted as exhaustive memorandum listing grievances and demands of the Depressed Classes. Sri 108 Swami Achhuta Nand Smark Smiti, the memorial committee of U.P published a copy of Dr. Ambedkar's hand written letter dated 3rd Feb. 1932 to Swami Ji, in which Dr. Ambedkar accepted him as his Guru. Swami Ji also met the Lothian committee in 1928 at Lucknow. In 1930, Swami ji sent a telegram in support of Dr. Ambedkar and Rai Bahadur Srinivasan, the two untouchables invited to the Round Table conferences at London (UK). He also raised voice for the "Achhutstan" or separate country for Scheduled Castes. Swami Ji was also a signatory of the Pune Pact signed on 24th September 1932 to ink the agreement reached between Dr. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi to solve the dead lock arisen due to Communal Award and Mahatma Gandhi's fast unto death.
Swami Achhutanand supported the demand of separate electorate made by Dr. Ambedkar in the Round Table Conferences. Swami ji was against the Rajah-Moonje Pact (MC Rajah then leader of Gandhi s Harijan Sewa Sang signed a pact with Dr. BS Moonje, leader of All India Hindu Mahasabha opposing the demand of separate electorate for the Dalit communalities') .Soami Ji moved from place to place and propagated against the pact. He strongly opposed the nomenclature of Harijan given to Dalits by Mahatma Gandhi. When Mahatma Gandhi was claiming to be the sole representatives of Dalits of India against the right demand of Dr. Ambedkar, Swami Ji arranged a demonstration of over 5000 Dalits at Kanpur in support Dr. Ambedkar and for separate electorates' to Dalits.
In order to bring a new awareness among the Depressed Classes, in 1922 he started a monthly paper "Achhut", from Delhi. But circumstances forced it to be closed soon. However, he again started a monthly magazine in 1922 "Prachin (ancient) Hindu". This too continued for a short period of one and a half year. Thereupon "The Adi-Hindu Journal" was started from Kanpur in 1924 which continued up to 1932. He was a philosopher-poet and a playwright. He wrote six books in Hindi —
1.                  Shambuk Balidan (Drama) exposing Hindu Lord Vishnu Avtara, Rama for killing innocent pious Dalit
Saint Shambuk.
2.          Achhut Pukar (Voice of the untouchables)-Religious  songs
3.          Mayanand Balidan (biography)
4.          Pakhand Khandani (Heterodoxy refuted).
5.          Adi- Vansh Ka Danka (Drum of the aboriginal people)-  poetry

Swami ji was  also a singer. He used to sing his own poems or songs of new spirit which were very impressive.Swami Ji worked extremely hard... He fell sick for 23 days and Swami Achhutanand ji left his mortal frame breathing his last on 20th  July 1933 at Kanpur at the ripe age of 54. He was given “Samadhi” by burying him opposite PS Nazirabad Nai Zamin, Lajpat Nagar, in Kanpur (UP).
           Swami Achchutanand Harihar was convinced that the untouchables continue to suffer social, political and economic subjugation as long as they are Hindu. Therefore, he launched Adi-Dharma (a religion for original race of Bharat-Native Indians) an alternative religion for untouchables to uplift them socially, culturally, religiously and economically. He challenged every customs and laws which placed untouchables as lower castes in the society. While opposing Manusmiriti the following couplet is from Swami’s composition
 “Manusmriti Hamko Jala Rahi Hai” (“Manusmriti is Burning Us”):
Day in and day out, this Manusmriti is burning us, burning us, Not letting us climb up, it is degrading us, degrading us,
 While Brahmins and Kshatriyas are allowed to rise and rise, “Wear your old clothes,” for us is the advice.                                        (The Hindu dated Sunday, Aug 03, 2008)

Er.H.R.Phonsa Jammu
Author can be reached by hrphonsa@gmail.com or 09419134060
Words:2839

Dated 18-06-2017