Thursday, February 2, 2017

Importance of February Month for Dalit Movement


 Come February and the memory of a number of Dalit personalities, Saints and freedom Fighters is afresh again in  the minds of Dalit Samaj. As the circle of birth and death is continuing since the man was born on the earth planet. So people born and die daily. Unbiased historians record the contribution of dedicated persons of vision for the welfare of the society as a whole and the sect in which a particular person is born. It is a well recognized fact that since the past historians were from the higher Hindu Castes, so they ignored writing about the historic contribution of Dalit personalities. In respect of Dalit men and women of vision, the past historians have shown utter contempt. With the dawn of 19th century some education institutions, particularly of Christian missionaries started parting education to all including poor, low caste, and untouchables. With this a change was brought in the whole education and writing history. Many Dalits also not only started churning out history books and consolidated truth out of existing literature but many challenged the inhuman treatment met out to them and their ancestors. Out of the limited material available I have tried here to find out the importance of February month in the Dalit history.
The following Dalit personalities, who contributed for the welfare of all in general and Dalits in particular were born in Feburary.
1 Jagdeo Prasad’s 95th  birthday falls 2-2-2017
 Shri Jagdeo Prasad the Lenin of Bihar was born on February 02, 1922 at Kurtha of Jehanabad district of Bihar. He belonged to Kushwaha caste who are vegetable growers. The Kushwaha have richly contributed to the struggle for social justice and democracy. The born radical that he was, JP prevailed upon his grandfather to not perform ‘Shraddh ’ of his father. Instead of ‘Shraddh’ rituals, there a condolence meeting and a small meal was held, all without any Brahmin priest. This was not the only incident of caste-based exploitation. In 1950 he graduated. He along with 6 of his collegues won  Bihar Stae Assembly  Bye Elections-1969 on –Shoshit Dal Party. Shoshit means oppressed and exploited. His efforts elevated  Kapoori Thakur  as Dy Chief Minister in an OBC leader in 1967. Credit goes to Jagdeo Prasad for breaking the monopoly of upper castes on the post of Chief Minister of Bihar. Bihar saw first non-Congress government in 1967 under the leadership of Mahamaya Prasad Sinha. Subsequently Kapoori Thakur was chief  Minister of Bihar(1970-71 & 1977-79).Shri. Satish  Prashad Singh and shri B.P.Mandal  another OBC Leaders was also chief Minister of Bihar in 1968. This practice is continuing intermittently. Jagdeo Prasad a master politician pulled down government of Mahamaya Prashad Sinha run with the support of Jansang and CPI for making space for Backward class Chief Minister. This brave son of Bihar was shot at and killed on September 05, 1974 in a conspiracy had been hatched by the feudal lords to kill him His funeral was attended by lakhs and condolence meeting on 7th Sep,1974 was attended among others by JP Narayan, Kapoori Thakue,and R.S.Verma .
Jagdeo Prasad’s coined slogan sums up many ideals.
“ We the exploited are ninety, ninety is our share in land, wealth and power, the ninety will not allow the rule of the ten.”
2. GURU RAVI DASS –A- PREEMINENT   MYSTIC
     ( Guru Ji’s 603rd  birthday falls on 10th Feubary,2017  )         
  “So purifying is Guru Ravi Dass, that the dust of his holy feet is worshiped by all.” Said Guru Nabha Dass.
Since in majority cases not much was written down about the lives of the saints, by saints themselves or their educated devotees. Saints never wanted anything in their glorification and there was wide spread illiteracy among their devotees. Many things about their life events are carried orally through ages.  So confusions and contradictions mixed up later about their parenthoods, places of birth, family details, religion or castes, dates associated with their life facts including births and deaths. Later writers collected different clues from different sources forming their own views, at times varying with one another. In case of Dalit saints this version had more relevancies. After long discussions and comparison of different research works by different scholars, some facts were churned out to be most acceptable. The largely accepted facts about the life of revered Goru Ravi Das are given here. Whereas differences in different writers still persists.
Guru Ravi Dass was born on Magh Purnima (Sunday)in Samvat  1471 ( 1414 AD ) to Shri Raghu & Shrimati Mata Karma Devi of Chamar caste at Mandiva Thein ,now called Goverdhan Pura  near Banaras  Some scholars give the names of his parents as Sh. Santosh Dass & Shrimati Mata Kalsi Devi . Guru Ravi Dass lived an exalted `life span of 126 years & left his mortal frame in 1540 AD to join back into the supreme ocean of Bliss or the Creator of Universe.  However, some scholars quote his life span of 151 years. But for want of authentic information such things are bound to happen.
     Guru Ravi Dass was born at a time when the orthodox and superstitious Hindu & Muslim priests had adopted rituals, Exterior body decorations, scarifying animals, visiting different places, bathing in different rivers, recitations of their Holy religious books etc. as sole methods of salvation from the circle of births & deaths. The Hindus had closed all their places of worships (temples), schools, entry into Government services or honorable services in private sectors for Shudras. ,Instead Shudras assigned to them most dirtiest duties for the Brahmans , Khatriyas & Vaishayas as per Rules framed by Manu All decent living were ruled out for them. Keeping richness of Guru Ravi Dass’s verses in view, 40 of them were incorporated into Sri Guru Granth Sahib by Guru Arjun Dev ji,
 Guru Ravi Dass denounced caste system which is based on un-natural laws & upheld Virtue by saying ;
 “If a Brahmin is virtue less, Offer him no worship ‘O ‘Ravi Dass,
Worship instead the feet of a Chandal, If he is Found full of virtue.”
Guru Rravidas further said “If thou are born to Brahmin (Superior by birth ) mother , why you have not born through a different route .”
Guru Ravi Dass advised the rulers to provide equal & decent means of livelihood to all their subjects & he said,
I want kingdoms where every one is well-fed,And all should live in harmony, Ravi Dass is happy only then”.
Guru Ravi Dass preached the rule of Almighty, that He has created everybody equal and there cannot be any
difference between persons of different castes. He said,
                    “Ask not caste “o” Ravi Dass, What is there in clan or caste?
 Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaish, or Shudra, All belong to the same caste”
 Guru Ravi Dass preach to the world true message of God realization, Love & devotion to Lord, through loving His creations he didn’t denounce other religions but dogmas & rituals. Guru RaviDass said,
Those who are not dyed internally in love, But merely make an outer display,
They will go to the world of death, Truly doth Ravi Dass state”.
Sri Guru Ravidas, preached that God realization can only be through devotion to a  true Naam dyed or realized saint and , not through Persons who preach dogmas, animal scarifying, roaming in jungles ,observing austerities, etc. He said those who are not dyed internally in love, but merely make an outer display shall not find peace after death. God becomes accessible only when He takes human form & come to the level of human in this world, as idols are lifeless, the animals & birds cannot communicate with us, the past respectable Saints and Noble persons/ Souls are as far away as God, so a living Saint or Master can only guide us.  This human form of pure spirit is called Guru by the saints. So Guru is God incarnation. Sain Bulleh Shah Said “God (Molla ) has taken the form of man (Guru)”  Sat Guru Kabir Said “Worship thou the true worshiper of the Lord .”
Guru Ravi Dass Said “God, Guru & Saint, Are the same in consciousness.” Among guru Ravidas’s disciples were Meerabai, Raja Peepa ,Rana sanga many more. Guru ravidas is said to have Three meetings with Guru Nanak.
Guru Ravidas advised his disciples to lead a clean life, refrain from animal killing for eating or scarifying before gods & Goddesses, never take wine or any other intoxicants. Guru Ravi Dass said,
“Those who eat meat, they in fact cut their own throat,
 For whosoever is meat eater, he will have to go to hell “sayeth Ravi Dass.” He further said,
 “Even ,if wine is made with Holy water of Ganga ,Saints drink it not.” 
Guru Ravi Dass spread the message of love for all, devotion to Lord, universal brotherhood, honest earning for livelihood & to discard all that does not help in God realization. By doing so he became one with Lord. Said, Ravidas. Guru Ravi Dass’s 639th birthday is falling on03th Feb. 2015 and the same shall be celebrated throughout India besides in many foreign countries with reverence. The best way to remember Guru Ji is to follow his ideals.
3.Mata Ramabai Ambedkar( Her 119th  birthday falls on 7th Febuary,2016)
  Revered Mata Ramabai Ambedkar wife of  Bharat Ratana  Baba Sahib Dr.B.R.Ambedkar was born on 7th Febuary 1898 nearly 11 months after passing away of Mata Savitribai Phuley a great social and educational revolutionary. It is rightly said, “There is a lady at the back of very successful man”.it was so in the case of Goswami Tulsidass, Shatrarpati Shiva Ji Maharaj, Tilak, Gandhi Veer Savarkar, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Baba Sahib B R Ambedkar and may other personalities, who made history of sorts. The success of Dr. Ambedkar had incalculable contribution of his noble wife Smt. Ramabai Ambedkar, She was intelligent, kind, poise, obedient, chaste, religious, possessing high character, besides having simplicity of style and taste. This saintly lady although lived in extreme poverty but without a whisper of complaint on her face. Always turning her eyes towards God for the safety and prosperity of her husband. She was gentle by temperament, sober in manners, weak in constitution but modest in speech. Revered Ramabhai a sober and good girl came of a good but poor family. She was the second daughter of Bhiku Walandkar, a resident of Walang village near Dapoli in Konkan in central India. He worked as porter at Dopli. He used to carry fish loads on his head from sea side to the bazaar. His earning was so meager that he could hardly make both ends meet. Rama bhai was born on 7th Febuary 1898. Her childhood name was Ramibhai and she has two sisters Gorabhai and Meerabhai and one brother named Shanker Dhutrey. Shanker Dhutrey also called Shanker Walangkar  who worked in a press. These unfortunate children lost first their mother & after some time their father too in childhood so were brought up by their maternal and parental uncle in Bombay (now Mumbai). Bhiva later called Bhimrao Ramji Dass Ambedkar and Ramibhai (later Ramabhai) were married when they were 16 years and 9 years old respectively: The marriage was ceremonised shortly after Bhim had passed his matriculation examination. The marriage pandal was an open shed of the Byculla Fish market in Bombay, after the days market was over. At night the bridegroom and his relatives were lodged in one spacious corner of the open shed and that of with her relatives in another corner. The small stone plate forms in the market served as benches, where a small gutter of dirty water flowed underneath their feet. The marriage place was vacated in the early morning before sunrise to enable the merchants to carry their daily business. The marriage was ceremonies with religious rites and jollity. Ramibhai was renamed Ramabhai after marriage and later earned the distinction of being called Mata Ramabhai Ambedkar.
          Rambhai Ambedkar was initially  illiterate but her husband later taught her simple reading and writing. Educationally there was world of difference between the two but they loved and respected each other from the core of their heats. Love, faith, sincerity, sacrifice and understanding links, between the two persons formed unbreakable chain to live happily, despite both being educationally poles apart. Bhim used to call his wife affectionately as “Ramu” and she called him “Sahib”. She was deeply proud of her husband and Bhim respected here immensely. As Dr. Ambedkar was always busy in reading & could devote very little time for house hold affairs. At times she used to press here sahib’s feet in the evening, when he was reading & slept on the floor under his feet. But Ramabhai ensured that nobody disturbed him during this study or working. She cared for the health and welfare of her husband by all means.
          When Ambedkar was in America, she lived a life of destitute but without any regret. It is rare historical example of courage & conviction of a wife (Ramabhai) who used to make cowdung cakes and carry the same on her head, to use them as cheap household fuel, despite taunting remarks from neighboring women folk, when her husband (Dr B R Ambedkar), also in acute financial crisis was struggling to obtain world’s highest Academic degrees including Doctorate of Science in foreign lands. Despite financial crisis for studies and at home. Dr Ambedkar became Barrister reinforced by a London Doctorate of Science, an American Doctorate in Philosophy and Studies of Bonn University, which reflected immense sacrifices of his wife. When Ambedkar was preparing to go to America for higher studies, the neighboring women advised Ramabhai to stop her husband from going abroad, as he may marry a Mem (English lady) and desert her. But Ramabhai had unflinching faith on her sahib and replied to those ladies that’ she knew her husband well and he cannot do so”.
          Despite Ramabhai‘s little education she was an expert housewife and knew well to run her house hold affairs. On getting money for monthly household expenses from Ambedkar she used to divide the money into 30 parts keeping each part separately. Daily she opened one part and used it, so as not to run penniless on last dates of the month. Her economical habits and faith in her husband, enabled the couple to get constructed their palatial house namely, Rajgrih in Bombay. But even after moving into Rajgrih, it did not affect her simple habits.
          The wedlock of this ideal couple was blessed with four sons and one daughter, Out of his four sons namely, Ramesh, Gangadhar, yashwant and Rajratna and one daughter Indu only one son namely Yashwant Ambedkar (Father of Sh Parkash Abmedkar MP) survived, and others died mostly in fancy. This gave the couple great pains and sorrows. On the death of his youngest son Rajratan on Ist July 1926, Dr Ambedkar wrote on 16th August to one of his friends, “There is no use pretending that I and my wife have recovered from the shock of our Son’s death and I don’t think that we ever shall. - - - - - - - with the loss of our kids the salt of our life is gone - - - - “ After a long period of mourning & on the insistence of his well wishers, Dr Ambedkar settled down on the work for emancipation of down trodden but Ramabhai Continued in grief. This acted upon here health badly and she fell gravely ill. She being highly religious even during illness, she continued observing fasts on Saturdays took only water and black gram, worshipped God for His blessing on her husband. Her thoughts, mind and eyes were devoted to the service of her Sahib. At this she would say,’ Sahib what is there in having so many Degrees, cannot we live happily with lesser education , perhaps she did not know that the emancipation of million of untouchables was possible only with knowledge of order which Dr Ambedkar acquired before plunging into the war to break the age old chains of slavery of his brethren.
          On Ramabhai’s insistence and life long Dr Ambedkar took Ramabhai to Pandharpur for pilgrimage of Vethal Ji Maharaj, in whom she had lot of faith. But being untouchables they were not allowed to go near the temple, so they had to stand at a distance from the temple idol to offer prayers. It irritated the self-respecting Dr Ambedkar and he said “What of that Pandherpur, which prevents its devotees from seeing the image of God, by our own virtuous life, selfless service and spotless sacrifice in the cause of downtrodden humanity, we shall create another Pandharpur. Another Pandharpur! He kept his promise by leaving Hindu religion and embracing Buddhism and re-establishing Buddha in His motherland after centuries. Illness at last over power the weak body physique of Rama Bai Ambedkar. She was even taken to Dharwal by Dr. Ambedkar for change, but this to did not help in improving her health. No medicine could give her relief and at last on 27th May 1935 unfortunate happen. She passed away at her residence.
Thus came the end of the nobility of mind and purity of heart. But fortunately Dr Ambedkar was by the side of her death bed. About 10,000 people rich and poor, educated and illiterate, important and common attended here funeral procession. Her son Yashwant Ambedkar preformed all Hindus rites at the bidding of a Maha priest Sambhoo More, who was Baba Sahib’s colleague since their school days. After the death of Ramabhai, Baba Sahib was a completely broken person. Over a week he kept weeping like a child and it was difficult to console him. He put on a dress of a hermit and got his head tonsured. The saintly saffron robe indicated a hermit with world negating attitude. On the repeated requests & advice of his trusted friend and well – wishers he again took in his hand the oar to sail across his suffering fellowmen and to cut their age old chains of slavery.
4. Sri Sri Guru Chand Thakur ( His death 120th Birth Anniversary falls on 9th February ,2017)
       Photo here is of his father sri sri Hari Chand Thakur
 Sri Sri  Guru Chand Thakur  son of Sri Sri Hari Chand Thakur a  social reformist of Bengal  ( Now Bangla Desh)  reportedly  passed away on 9th February 1897. He was born in Namasudra or Namassej(also called Chandal ).From early age he had inclinations for reformist. His father Sri Sri Hari Chand Thakur  who founded “Matua Mahasang”was born on 11March,1811 and passed away in 1877 .The Matua believe that male and female are equal. They discourage early marriage. Widow Remarriage is allowed. Both men and women can be religious teachers.Main principles Namasudra were: (1) No necessity of entering the temples of higher castes for the purpose of worship, (2) Discarding Brahmin priest for any ceremony, (3) Worship on Shri Hari, (4) Not to worship idols and not to visit pilgrimage centers of Hindus and (5) Maintain good moral conduct and lead an ideal family life. The sect became popular in East Bengal (now a part of Bangladesh) and he led the untouchability movement called the Chandal movement in India. He built an English high school at Orakandhi ( now in Bangladesh ) for the people of lower  community called Nama Shudra (untouchable community). He united the people of this community, but was against religion conversion. However some Bengali Brahmins have made him a Maithili Brahmin. Harichand’s doctrine is based on three basic principles-truth, love, and sanctity. The doctrine treats all people as equal. Shri Shri Harichand Thakur and his son Guruchand Thakur were great social reformers who worked to  reform the society of chandal (charal). Guruchand Thakur started Namasudra Welfare Association.He called an all Bengal Namasudra Conference  in 1881 at Duttadanga in Khulna district( Now Bangladesh). He united the people of lower community people, and protect them from religion conversion. Guruchand Thakur appealed to the then Governor of West Bengal and Assam to give employment to Namasudra in Government services.He also worked to get removed Chandal,a disdraceful name  by a new name. In the censes of 1911 Chandal word was substituted by  four different clans or Gotras.(  Source:-Wikipedia)
5. Shri Sant Ram B.A. ( His birthday130th birthday falls on 14th Feb,2017  )                      
      Shri Sant Ram B.A. a Dalit (Megh) by caste was born on 14th February 1887 at Puranni Bassi Hoshiarpur ( Punjab).He had studied up to B.A. and there after devoted himself for Dalit upliftment social work. He was also a devoted Arya Samaji sect of Soami Dayanand Saraswati. To abolish caste system he worked to establish his own organization “Jat-Pat- Todak Mandal”. One of the plank of his organization was to promote inter caste marriages and to get abolished caste system from with in the Depressed classes. Since Arya Samaji’s did not co-oprate with Jat-Pat Todakl Mandal ideals, so Sh.Sant Ram  made it an independent organization to continue his efforts for  achieving  his set goals.
Shri Sant Ram invited Dr.Ambedkar to preside over  1936 annual convention  of the Jat-Pat Todak Mandal to be held at Lahore and also deliver his presidential address.. Dr.Ambedkar wrote the Presidential address, but the Mandal  committee wanted some changes in it,to which Dr. Ambedkar did not agree. The convention was cancelled and the presidential address was published by Baba sahib as “Annihilation of Caste” in 1936 itself and this book is considered as one of the best books written by the author. It has gone into so many reprints since then. Sant Ram himself translated into Hindi and published in the Kranti  an Urdu monthly magazine. Sant Ram authored many books as well. He breathed his last on 5th June 1988 at an age of 101 years.
6.Mahatma Jyotirao Phule ( His 190th  birthday falls on 20th Feb,2017  )                      
Mahatma Jyotirao Phule was born on 20-2-1827 to revered couple Gobindarao and Chimnabai in village  Khanbari of Poona. He earned the title of Mahatma and title of Bukar T.Washington (American President and a great leader against acts of slavery & apartheid).Since Gobindarao and his two brothers served as florists under the Pashwas, so they were called Phules.Chimnabai died when Jyotiba was 9 months old..Gobindrao wanted his son to get a higher education so as to spread the Gyan Jyoti for the humanity at large and Dalits in particular..Jyotirao completed his secondary education in 1847 and decided not to accept any government job but work for the upliftment of downtrodden( Women included ) and to spread education among them.
                         One day when Jyotirao accompanied the Barat of his Brahmin friend, but was insulted and abused as to  how a Dalit dared to take part in Barat (Marriage Party) of a Brahmin. After this incident Jyotiba made up his mind to defy the caste system and decided to serve the shudras and women who were deprived of all of their human rights under the caste system.Jyotiba was married
in 1840 to Savitribai. Savitribai Phule, worked as the true disciple and co-missionary of her husband. They changed the history by opening a school on 1-1-1848 for girls in Poona where Savitirbai was admitted as first Student along with four Brahmin girls, one Maratha girl and sixth a shepherd family girl.Jyotirao Phule continued this school despite opposition form orthodox Hindus, who considered this act against their religion, as Hindu scriptures considered educating girls & Dalits as a great sin , defying the Hindu scriptures & Orthodox preaching of Caste proudly Brahmins , they opened 18 such schools including some having co-education. Thus the Phuley couple  became father & Mother Women Edfucation in India.
                      Feeling pity on the condition of orphans Jyotiba Phule opened   orphanage, perhaps first such institution by a Hindu. Jyotiba Phule gave protection to widows & assured them that his orphanage shall take care of their childrenirrespect of casteor colour..  It was in this orphanage that a Brahmin widow gave birth to a male child in1873 and Jyotirao Phule adopted him as his son & educated him to become a qualified doctor.
                         He published his controversial book “Slavery,” in 1873 ,in which he declared  his manifesto  that he was  willing to dine with all irrespective of  their caste, creed, or country of origin Jyotirao Phule  formed “ Satya Shodhak Samaj on 24 th September 1873. The main objectives of this organization were to liberate the Shudras, Ati Shudras & to prevent their exploitation by the Upper caste Hindus. He refused to regard Vedas as sacrosanct & denounced Chaturverna & instead published his book “Satya Dharma Pustak in 1891.  According to him all men & women  are equal  so are entitled to enjoy equal rights & it was a sin to discriminate between human beings Widow remarriages were banned and child marriage was very common among the Hindus Society Jyotirao opposed both & worked to benefit them and  got re- married one Shayani caste widow on 8th march 1890 against  strong protests He opposed the evil customs too.
 He edited a weekly news paper “DEEN BANDU,” from 1st January 1877 Jyotirao Phule got his right hand incapacitated in an illness, so he stated writing with his left hand & wrote a book titled as “ SARIVJANIK SATYA DHARAM , “ After ceaselessly working for over 63 years Jyotirao Phule passed away on 28 th November 1890 about 138 days before the birth  of Dr. BR Ambedkar another luminary, Father of free India’s Constitution , who too worked lifelong for the emancipation of Dalits , depressed, weak  & women Jyotirao Phule shall be remembered for the centuries to come for the  good work he did for the Dalits & Depressed peoples of society.
  7.GADGE JI MAHARAJ( His 138th birthday falls on 23rd Feb,2017  )                      
A great social & religious reformer of 19th century was born on 23 -02-1879 in the village Ron of Maharastra, to respected Sh. Singraji Janorkar & Mata Shrimati Sukhbai of Preet caste, a watermen’s community. He was married in childhood to Shrimati Kunnabai & both parented one girl child. Dabuji was his childhood name. Once Dabuji dared to take meals in a community function along with his community persons in the same row where upper caste Hindus were taking meals, but he was turned out. This incident made unforgettable dent on his tender mind, so in later years he opposed caste     System with all his might. He used to say that there are only two castes created by God namely man& woman. We are all human & Dalits or untouchables have nothing different than upper Caste Hindus. The superiority claims of upper Caste Hindus is nothing more than cheating & deception .He advised all to take lessons from the Sun, the Fire, the Trees the Animals, the Birds , the mother Earth , who provide equal services to all irrespective of caste, creed, sex , religion or place of birth of a person. He always wore rags & carried a Garwa (Water pot with a curved short, spout ) ,so he was called as Gadge Ji Maharaj . He said, “God realization is not in observing fasts, worshiping idols, undertaking long journeys to identified religious places,, listening to religious sermons but in service to humanity, particularly those who are poor, deprived , sick & needy .” he preached not to slaughter animals  to please gods & goddesses, do not waste money on pilgrims , do not drink wine , but serve your parents & poor’s well,  do not indulge in untouchability , do not be under the inferiority  complex , cut your expenditure on marriage functions and do not take or offer  dowry. He decried / cursed those who took the services of animals like cows, goats, horses, donkeys; buffalos etc during their youth but did not care them in their old age.
In  1949  when Dr. BR Ambedkar, the then Law Minister of Indian Union met Gadge ji ,  he advised  his Visitor to leave the Hindu religion, which is resistant to reforms, but also not to embrace Christianity or Islam. Dr Ambedkar followed advice of Gadge Ji & converted to Buddhism in 1956.  Gadge Baba dedicated Sant Chokhamela Dharmashala, Pandharpur to Dr Ambedkar for his love for Dr Ambedkar.
          On way to Amravati Gadge Baba ji passed away on 20th December 1956 on the Bridge of Perry River.   On the Tappi river between Khandla & Nagpur is situated his Samadhi named Shri Gadgeji Maharaj, “ GYANI DHAM ,” .In his Samadhi here  an  Asti-kalash or a pot  containing  Gadgeji’s ashes is stored in the basement of the memorial . Gadge Baba ji shall be remembered as a great emancipator & true guide of Dalits, who preached to live with dignity, compassion,love and mercy His main teaching are as;- Give food to the hungry
                                    Give Shelter to the needy
                                    Protect the environment.
                                    Protect Animals.
·         The Indian postal deptt issued a memorial postal stamp “ Baba Gadge” on 20th Dec.1998 to mark 42nd Death Anniversary  Baba Ji.The Government of India has instituted  a national award’ sant Baba Gadge Swachata Abhiyan”in 2000-01.
sant Baba Gadge Swachata Abhiyan” should be adopted by Indian Prime Minister   in his crusade for cleanliness.
                       This saint shall be remembered as a great emancipator & true guide of Dalits, who preached them to Live with dignity.
Justice Raja Ram Bole 9 his 104th birthday  13th February, 2017).
      Shri Rajaram Bhole belonging to Mahar caste and was a close confidant of Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. Shri Rajaram Bhole’s father Shri Ramji Bhola lived in Bolaram near Hydrabad in Andhara Pradesh. Bolarum is one of the major suburbs of Hyderabad, India. Geographically, a part of Bolarum is in Hyderabad district while another is in Ranga Reddy District. It comes under Secunderabad Cantonment Board. Shri Rajaram Bhole was born on 13th February, 1913. Shri Rajaram Bhole passed his matriculation from high school at Secundrabad and B.Sc from Furguson College Pune. He continued his studies with keen interest and passed his LL.B.
  In his early youth at Solapur he listened Dr. Ambedkar speeches and also to meet him Shri Rajaram Bhole   got very much influenced by these speeches and decided to lend his helping hand in Dr. Ambedkar’s crusade against exploitation of the untouchables by upper caste Hindus. Dr. Ambedkar even helped him to get scholarship for his proposed engineering course from the Nizam’s government. But due to the prolonged illness of Shri Rajaram Bhole, he could not complete his engineering studies. Earlier he had a chance to stay for one year at Gandhi Ji’s Sewa gram ashram at Wardha. Wardha is a city and a municipal council in Wardha district in the state of Maharashtra. It is the administrative headquarters of Wardha district. Wardha gets its name from the Wardha River which flows at the North, West and South boundaries of district. The town is now an important centre for the cotton trade. It was an important part of Gandhian Era.  Here Sh R.R Bhole was also treated for his illnes At Wardha Shri Rajaram Bhole even met Mahatama Gandhi and gained nearness to him. Mahatama Gandhi gave a recommendatory letter in the name of Dr Ambedkar to keep him with him as Shri Rajaram Bhole was faithful and trustworthy person.
  Observing pitiable poverty ridden conditions of his Dalit brethren, he decided to work for their welfare. Therefore he organized a conference of Dalit youth and requested Dr Ambedkar to preside over it. Dr Ambedkar presided over the conference in Pune in 1935, where a call was given to Dalit youth to work for their betterment and for the betterment of their brethren. Shri Rajaram joined  the Independent Labour Party founded by Dr Ambedkar and contested elections in 1937 for the Bombay Legislative Assembly from Pune ( West) and won it. He worked very actively in the Assembly. He also contested for the first General Elections in 1952 on SCF Ticket for Kohlapur- Satara double member constituency but could not win.
 Since Shri Rajaram Bole had earned nearness to Dr Ambedkar during his life time. Dr Ambedkar had founded the Peoples Education Society in 945 and he remained its Chairman till his sad demise on December 6th, 1956.Therefore after the sad demise of great Dalit emancipator Dr Ambedkar the responsibility of   running the affairs and management as Chairman fell on the shoulder of Justice Rajaram Bole. He carried effectively the responsibilities of running the affairs of the Peoples Education Society. He was elected its Chairman in 1959 and continued to hold the responsibility till 1985.
  In 1955 he also joined the judiciary as District Judge. He was subsequently appointed by Govt. Of India in 1962, as one man Commission to inquire into firing in Port Blair in Andaman Islands. He also earned the distinction of getting elevated as Bombay High Court Judge from among the Scheduled Castes. He retired from service on 11th February, 1975 at the age of 62 years. There after Justice Rajaram Bhole was appointed by the Government as Chairman of the Commission for revision of the pay scales of the Maharashtra Government employees.
 He had the proud privilege to get appointed as a member of the Backward Classes Commission constituted under the Chairman ship of Justice B.P.Mandal constituted on 20th December, 1978. The Backward Classes Commission submitted its report called “Mandal Commission Report” on 31st December 1980. This report formed the basis for granting Reservation in Services to the Other Backward Classes candidates in Services.
   To continue his commitment to work for the welfare of the Dalits, he joined Congress Party and contested for Lok Saba Elections from Bombay in 1980.  Justice Rajaram Bole proved to be an able Dalit leader, trusted lieutenant of Baba Sahib Dr Ambedkar, a reputed judge, out spoken parliamentarian and as an educationist.  He was a great follower and protagonist of Buddhism and served as Chairman of the Buddhist Council of India.
Justice Raja Ram Bole passed away on 24th August, 1993 leaving behind his only son.  Justice Rajaram Bole shall be long remembered for his services in different fields, particularly for the welfare of Dalits.
Naik Devrao Vishnu ( His 123rd birthday falls on 9th February 2017)
          Naik was born on 9th February 1894 at Aalewadi (Taluka Palghar). He joined the Ambedkar movement of untouchables for Human Rights in 1927 when Mahad Satyagraha was launched by Baba Sahib to taste water from Chavdar Tale.  He the Editor of the newspaper Brahmin-Brahminetar and of Samta. Dr. Ambedkar launched the Samta on 15th March 1929 with a view to highlight existing conflict between the Brahmins and non-Brahmins.   Devrao Naik was one of the front runner organizers of the Kalaram Temple Satyagraha at Nasik organized by Dr Ambedkar on 3rd of March, 1930. This Satyagraha was organized to waken the Untouchable and test the Hindu Mind towards their religious brethren. Devrao V. Nail was also entrusted the editorship of the Janta fortnightly news paper started by Dr. Ambedkar on 24th November 1930. The publication of the paper was also helped by Bhaiya Sahib Jaswant Rao Ambedkar besides Bapu Sahib Sahasrabuddha, B.C. Kamble, R.D. Bhandare .He was dedicated to work as very active volunteer of the Samaj Samata Sangha ( League for Equality) founded under the leadership of Dr.Ambedkar. He edited The Samata a fortnightly news magazine of the Samaj Samata Sangha. Shri Naik died in Mumbai on 27yh August 1982. He was stanch trusted follower of Dr.Ambedkar the Dalit em Nanak Chand Rattu  (His 95th Birthday falls on 6-2-2017)
   Nanak Chand Rattu was born on 6th February 1922, in village Sakruli, in Hoshiarpur District of Punjab. He is best known as the most closely associated and loyal Private Secretary to Dr.Ambedkar who served him, sacrificing personal gains, his family,  official career, ambitions and inspiration for over 17 years, from January 3, 1940 up to Dr.Ambedkar’s death on December 6, 1956.
           Sh. Nanak Chand on passing his Matriculation Examination in 1938, came to Delhi in November 1939 in search of a job. After facing many difficulties he got a job in the Government of India, in 1941. While in service he worked his way up and passed the B.A degree Examination. He came in contact with Dr Ambedkar and abandoned his studies before taking his M.A.examination to, serve Dr.Ambedkar with exemplary dedication.
          He has carved such a place of Honour – undergoing sufferings, carping humiliations, troubles and tribulations, for a great cause of the oppressed millions – and living so dominantly in the sweet hearts of Dalit masses / Buddhists, that they held him high esteem as being the reflex of their savior, the Great Dr. Baba Sahib Ambedkar. Like a shadow he remained in the sacred service of his Messiah Dr.Ambedkar.
          He was awarded Bheem Medal, Bheem Rattan Award, Ambedkar Centenary Award, Anand Award, Ambedkar Rattan Centenary Award, Vishvrattan Dr.Ambedkar Bhushan Award and Letters of Appreciation, grandly and befittingly presented to him by Dr.Ambedkar organizations in India, United Kingdom and Germany, in recognition of his unique services to Dr.Ambedkar and a reputed social worker of outstanding qualities. The felicitations and honors that he received are uniquely superb and ceremonious. After the untimely death of his master Dr Ambedkar Dr. Savita Ambedkar also known as Mai sahib called first to Nanak Chand Rattu and he was perhaps the first person to see Dr Ambedkar as dead after Mai sahib. He accompanied the dead body to Bombay now Mumbai. Nanak Chand Rattu had embraced Buddhism with Baba Sahib. 
          In Dr.Ambedkar’s heroic, great, glorious history of liberating battle, he is assigned a golden chapter by reputed biographers, research scholars, eminent writers and journalists who have produced volumes of literature on Dr.Ambedkar, from the material and information readily given by him, gratefully acknowledged in their writings.  He also has written some books on the life, Last days, and Mission of Dr Ambedkar. Nanak Chand Rattu’s writing give vivid description of events related with Dr. Ambedkar, including last days neglect by his wife, family dispute and many such heart rendering events.  He is said to have started the first games in the open naming the place as Dr Ambedkar Stadium, which now holds world level games events in Delhi.
          With his restless endeavors, Ambedkar Museum, set up by him at Nagpur, is going to be the historical monument and the world famous Buddhist Pilgrimage Centre. Apart, his effort to build “Ambedkar Guest House” for the convenience of the visitors is laudable.
           Nanak Chand Rattu retired as under secretary from Central Government on February 29, 1980. . He breathed his last on 15th September 2002. But till his last days he was actively associated with the spread of Dhamma and the noble mission of Dr. Baba Sahib Ambedkar.
Varale , Balwantrao Hanmantrao  ( His 90th Birthday falls on 2-2-2017)
          Balwantrao Hanmantrao Varale an active participant of the Mahad Satyagraha of 1927 was closely associated with the movements of Baba Sahib. He was born on 2nd February 1901 at village Benadi in Belgaum and passed away in Mumbai on 9th August 1977 working with dedication for the cause of Dalits. He was a trusted lieutenant of Baba Sahib Ambedkar’s Dalit Emancipation progremmes. He had personally very closeness with Dr.Ambedkar. When Baba Sahib formed the Independent Labour Party (ILP) on 15 August, 1936, He was called to contest on ILP ticket for the Mumbai Legislative council election in 1937 and he got elected. In all fourteen candidates of IPL won for the held on 17th February 1937 along with Dr. Ambedkar. He got elected He won from Belgium. He was also a die hard volunteer of the scheduled Castes Federation founded by Dr.Ambedkar in 1942. When the Peoples Education Society (Registered in1945-46) established a college at Aurangabad in 1950. The college premises were named as Nagsen Van. Shri Varle was present at college premises when Bodhivrisha (Buddha tree) was planted there by Baba Sahib. This college was renamed by Baba Sahib as Milind College, Aurangabad   He became the first Registrar of Milind College, Aurangabad, opened by Baba Sahib. It is said Shri Varale insisted Dr Ambedkar to get sculptured his bust from Mr. R.B. Madilgekar in 1950 which the latter accepted.  He accompanied Dr Ambedkar to attend the fourth Katmandu World Buddhist Conference. Sh.B.M Varale was the President of the people’s Education society from 1975 to 1977. Although he lived only for 50 years, he made un- matching contribution for the welfare and well being of the Dalits.
17th February 1937,Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar won Bombay Vidhan Sabha election  on his Independent Labour Party( IPL) ticket.) In all 17 candidates of IPL Party won the election making a history of sorts when untouchable got the mandate in any recognized Law making Body of the country. Although Baba Saheb entered the Bombay Legislative Council in 1927as nominated member. He was re-nominated in 1932 .He was its member for 12 years. Bombay Legislative Council  had 140 members.  Baba Saheb moved  Abolition of the Khoti System Bill in the Bombay Legislative council, which proved a land mark in  the Land Reforms Legislation in Post Independence India. Dr. Ambedkar also made forceful speeches with value based suggestions on Mahar Vatan, Industrial dispute, Prohibition , Education, University Act Amendment Bill, Small holdings, Maternity benefits for women employees, Birth Control  and many more.
Words 6880                                                              Er. H. R. Phonsa
                                                        ( Mobile 09419134060)                hrphonsa@gmail.com
Source material References:-
1. Wikipedia
2. Dalit Movement In India and Its Leaders by;-R.K. Kshirsagar

3. Dr Ambrdkar and His Associates by “ Er.H.R.Phonsa”.

Sunday, January 8, 2017

January Month Importance in Dalit History

January Month Importance  in Dalit History
 January the first month of year  in Christian Era  has  stored many memories of the Dalit History. The following are a few such memorable days of January which carry special significance for Dalits.
12-01-1598                                                    Jijabai Jyanti
                             Revered Jijabai was  the worthy mother of Shiva Ji the Great , founder of the Maratha Empire. Jijabai was born on January 12, 1598 as the daughter of Lakhojirao Jadhav of Deulgaon near Sindkhed in present-day Buldhana district of Maharashtra State. Her mother's name was Mhalsabai. As per the customs of that age, Jijabai was married at an early age to Shahaji Raje Bhonsle, son of Maloji Bhonsle of Verul village, a military commander serving under the Adil Shahi sultans of Bijapur Sultanate in present-day Karnataka. The wedding was held in Sindkhed on 5 Nov 1605, when Jijabai was eight years old; her husband was hardly twelve years old, and she was his first wife. As per custom, Jijabai remained with her parents for several years before joining her husband. Jijabai bore Shahaji as many as eight children, six daughters and two sons. All the daughters died in infancy and only the two sons, Sambhaji and Shivaji, reached adulthood. In 1630, three years after Shivaji's birth, Shahaji re-married  withTukabai, daughter of Sardar Bajirao Mohite Pongwadikar of Bijapur, who was Shahaji's close friend and, like him, also a commander serving the sultan of Bijapur. Jijabai was a very pious and intelligent woman with great vision for independent kingdom. She inspired Shivaji by telling stories from Ramayana, Mahabharata and Balaraja. Inspired by her, Shivaji took the Oath of Independence (SWARAJYA) in the fort temple of lord Raireshwar in 1645 when he was 17. In Shivaji's impeccable, spotless character and courage, Jijabai's contribution is enormous. She died soon after coronation of Shivaji on June 17, 1674. Shivaji was heartbroken by her death.
1-1-1818          Bhima Koregaon Vijay Divas
                         This battle took place on January 1st, 1818, near the banks of Bhima River in Koregaon (north-west of Pune) between few hundred(just 500 of them) Mahar soldiers from the British regiment of a Bombay Native Light Infantry and the Peshwa army that constituted 20,000 horsemen and 8,000 infantry soldiers. After marching down for more than 27 miles, from Shirur to Bhima Koregaon without food and water, the untouchable warriors fought the Peshwas army for next 12 hours and by the end of the day defeated them completely. It was an attempt by the untouchables of Maharashtra to break the shackles of the age-old caste order. The saga of the bravery of Mahar soldiers was commemorated by the British in 1851, when they erected a Pillar (Vijay Stambh) at Koregaon inscribing the names of 22 Mahar soldiers who were martyred in this battle. The pillar still stands today reminding all of us about the bravery of our forefathers and as an inspiration for our struggle against caste-system. Baba Saheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar used to visit Koregaon every year on 1st January to pay homage to the untouchable soldiers and to exhort Dalits to show similar courage and determination to end Brahminism from the entire country. On 1st January, 1927, he organised a big convention in Koregaon and brought the memories of bravery of the untouchable soldiers in public knowledge.  Baba Saheb was against Brahminical thinking based on the division of labourers in the disguise of division of labour.
 3-1-1831                    Revolutionary  Mata Savitribai Phuley  the first woman teacher in  Indiawas born on this day.
                       She broke the age old practice of denying education to womenfolk by Brahminical thought.  Under the guidance of her husband she took to teaching and so opened on 1st January 1848 first ever school for girls in Pune facing orthodox Hindu ordeal.They opened 18 schools  some co education. They also opened first ever orphanage to help sexually exploited  widows and cared their illegitimate children. She passed
 14-01-1886     Mangu Ram, Magowalia known popularly as Babu Mangu Ram Chaudhry, was born in Muggowal, Hoshiarpur district.  An Indian Dalit  freedom fighter and politician from Punjab was associated with the Ghadar Party. He was founder of the Adi Dharma Samaj.

 29-01-, 1904     Shri J.N.Mandal was born He was First Law and Labour  Minister of Pakistan.He presided briefly the constitution Drafting Committee of Pakistan. He single handily  got Elected Dr. Ambedkar  from Bengal with the support of Scheduled Caste and Muslim members. There after  Dr. Ambedkar became a member of Constituent Assembly of India. Subsequently Dr. Ambedkar was selected as the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, thanks to the vision of Shri J.N. Mandal.
6-01-1904                Hardas Laxmanrao Nagrale (6th January 1904– 12th January 1939), popularly known as Babu L.N. Hardas.was a Dalit leader and social reformer in India. He was an ardent follower of Dr. Ambedkar and was pioneer of the practice of exchanging the greeting Jai Bhim amongst the Dalits. He was also a prominent labour leader in the Central Province and was the general secretary of the Independent Labour Party in the province.
  5-1-1905                           Dr.Bhadant Anand Koshalayan Jyanti
                         Dr. Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan was a Buddhist monk, Scholar, Traveller and a prolific writer from India. He is considered as one of the great activists of Buddhism of the 20th century. He was influenced by Great Buddhist Scholar, Social Reformer Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan and Dr. Ambedkar. He  was born Harnam Das on January 5, 1905 in Sohana Village of Ambala District in Punjab. He did B.A from National College in Lahore. His travels took him to different parts of World for promoting Buddhism just like his mentor Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan. He devoted his full life to serve Buddhism. He always wanted to have experience of traveling far distances across many countries and discover new things. His aim was to continue the tradition started by his inspirations.He contributed a lot to Indian Travel Literature and Hindi. He loved Hindi as a child loves his mother and supported it in many ways. He worked for Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Prayag, Rastrabhasha Prachar Samiti, Vardha etc.
January  1909                      Choudhary Sadhu Ram was born
        Sadhu Ram later known as  Choudhary Sadhu Ram Mastere, a Punjabi Dalit leader was born to a well known (Chamar) Shri Jawahar Mal of Village Domeli in Kapurthala in January 1909.  As a child Sadhu Ram was admitted in the Khalasa High School Domeli. On achieving adulthood Shri Sadhu Ram established his good business. From the very childhood Sadhu Ram decided to work for the welfare of his community. The condition of the Dalits in those days was no good and majority of them worked as farm labour for Land holders at minimum wages. These poor Dalits were under age-old debt of the local Banias (Business men and money lenders). Poverty, illiteracy and hate were forced upon them by manmade religious norms. So Sadhu Ram decided to dedicate his life to remove these manmade miseries and free his brethren from the centuries old slur. Later he prefixed his surname as “Choudhary” meaning village headman, landlord, Local leader, Chieftain or foreman. He worked with Mangoram Magowalia for establishment of Ad-Dharam in 1926. To put this movement on the firm footing its aims and objectives were to establish a separate religious identity for untouchables other than Hindus on the Philosophy of Dalit Saints particularly Guru Ravidas. Discrimination on account of castes was discarded saying it was manmade as God created every one equal. Sikh way of worship was adopted declaring following of the Hindu religious books likes Shastri, Spiritless, Prams and Vedas as sin.  Jai Guru Dev was adopted as a wish for greeting. Later he broke away from Ad Dharma and joined Dr.Ambedkar’s movement SCF. Again Master Sadhu Ram broke away from SCF and joined Indian National Congress in 1946. He met Babu Jagjivan Ram, who was a prominent Congress leader with nearness to Mahatma Gandhi. Babu Jagjivan Ram and other Dalit leaders had established in 1935, a pro-Congress Dalit organization named “All India Depressed Classes League”. Master Sadhu Ram joined this organization and was made convener of PEPSU State in 1954. Master Sadhu Ram was nominated by Congress Party in 1952 for General Election to contest his first election from Phagwara (G and SC) constituency for the PEPSU Legislative Assembly and got elected. He was made Deputy Home Minister for PEPSU. This opened the destiny doors for Master Sadhu Ram. In the second general elections held in 1957 he got elected in Lok Sabha from Jallandhar (G and SC) constituency. He got elected in 1962, 1967 and1971 for the Lok Sabha from Phillaur (R) constituency. Master Sadhu Ram continued serving in different capacities till he expired on 1st August, 1975. He shall be long remembered for his good work for the welfare of his people. Although he broke away from Dr. Ambedkar politically, but he continued to keep his ideals as his guide.
    1 -1- 1918     Madam Dani Shantabai  was born
                      She was a Mahar Republician leader was born  in  a hut on out skirts of Nasik in Maharashtra, on 1st January 1918 to revered Shri Dhanaji Dani. Her father was a devotional religious singer. To earn his livelihood he was engaged as the milk seller and owned  twelve buffalows. Miss Dani Shantabai as a child was brought in a poise religious atmosphere. She was teacher by profession and passed her teacher’s training examination from Nasik. After passing her matriculation from Pune she got the job of a teacher in Vinchur school of Nasik district in Maharashtra.  Since she was engrossed in social work for the upliftment of her Dalit Samaj, so she resigned from her job and became a whole timer social activist.  For devoting her full time for the Dalit uplift she did not marry.  In Pune she came in contact with Dada sahib Gaikwad a committed activist of the Scheduled Caste Federation (SCF). B.K. Gaikwad took her to Dr. Ambedkar. She was so influenced by the work of both these Dalit emancipators along with their team that she joined SFC on the day of its formation at Nagpur on 18-19 July, 1942 by Dr. Ambedkar.  Due to her dedication and commitment for the upliftment of the Dalits, in 1943 she was elected as President of SCF Nasik district unit. She was among the members of RPI (The Republican Party of India) when this party was launched on 3rd November, 1957after the death of Dr. Ambedkar. Her mentor Dada Sahib B.K. Gaikwad was made president of the new political party. She also participated in the second conference of SCF at Kanpur in 1945 and got the unique honor of presiding over the SCF Women’s conference held there at the same time. She accompanied P.N. Rajbhoj to Raipur to bring Satnami Dalits to main stream of Dalit empowerment movement. But being misunderstood both were arrested as agents of Nizam of Hyderabad. Both were lodged in Jabalpur jail for three months. She was also jailed  in Yarwada  jail Pune in 1946 for leading a black flag demonstration against Poona Pact( 1932).
In her long association with Dalit leaders, Dr. Ambedkar, P.N. Rajbhoj, Madam N.Shivraj, Dada Sahib B.K Gaikwad, Mrs Gitabai B.Gaikwad, Dada Sahib Roham, Sh. Lalingkar, Miss Londhe, she did a remarkable work for the empowerment of the Dalits. She got converted to Buddhism along with others in 1956 and propagated it in Maharashtra. She passed away in 2001 at an age of 83 years.Her life was a saga of journey of struggle.  She shall be long remembered for struggle to achieve goals of Dalit empowerment.
    31 -01-,1920           Mooknayak Fortnight news paper launched by Baba Sahib.For this paper  Shatarpati  Sahu J Maharaj donated   Rs 2500/-
 15-01-1929                        Morter Luther King a great Liberator of Black was born.
                                   In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King traveled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail", a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, "l Have a Dream", he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.

At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.
 6 January 1929:  -   First All Assam Depressed Classes Conference.
            The conference was presided by Rai Saheb Senapati Sonadhar Das. The conference raised the    demand for separate electorate for the Depressed Classes.
18-1-1934               Dr. Ambedkar delivered speech in Gokhale Institute Pune which was later published  in a book form     titled  Ranade, Gandhi, Jinah.
6 -01-1939:        Dr. Ambedkar addressed a big meeting of agriculturists at Mahad (Raigad district of Maharashtra) where he impressed upon the audience that the Congress Ministry had failed to mitigate their woes[3].
He said that the Premier Kher (Pirme Minister of Bombay) was simply a figure head; and he described the other Ministers of the Provincial Government as dogs at the door of Sardar Patel. Referring to the boastful statement of Sardar Patel, which he had made at a reception given to Kher in Gujarat, to the effect that they welcomed Kher as a devotee of Gandhi and not as Premier Kher, otherwise thet would have sent him back unceremoniously, Dr. Ambedkar said that he would wreak vengeance on Patel for this dire insult inflicted upon a Maharashtrian. If Patel dared insult him in this manner, he added, he would thrash him. This was no a soliloquy; this was a public speech! It was a natural outburst of anger sprung from a strong mind which was consitenet with its contempt for the Congress leaders’ rude mentality, and determinied to show its superiority. The above outburst is also a sequale to the immediate past incidents. In September 1938, the Industrial Disputes Bill was taken up by the Bombay Legislative Assembly. Dr. Ambedkar and Jamnadas Mehta opposed the Bill tooth and nail. Ambedkar described Bill as bad, bloody and bloodthirsty inasmuch as it made a strike under certain circumstances illegal and affected the right of the labourer to strike. Ambedkar stated that according to him strike was a civil wrong and not a crime, and making a man serve against his will was nothing less than making him a slave. He continued that the Bill ought to have been called ‘the Worker’ “Civil Liberties Suspension Act”. Ambedkar then teased the Government by saying that it was a Government, which claimed to be elected on labour votes; but it did not stand by its election pledges. It was a democracy, he added, that was enslaving the working class, and therefore it was a mockery of democracy. But the Congress Ministry was determined to pass the Bill, which they ultimately did despite massive rally at Kamgar Maidan (on 6 & 7 November) and strike (on 7 November) were organized by Independent Labour Party. Also on 25 December, Swami Sahajanand, the Peasant leader from Uttar Pradesh, saw Dr. Ambedkar at his residence in Bombay and had a talk with him about the labour problem in Bombay and the agrarian reforms in general. He tried to persuade Ambedkar to join the Congress to form a united front against imperialism.
6 -01-1940:                          Periyar met Dr. Ambedkar in Mumbai
                    By 10.00 a.m, Periyar arrived at Dadar station with his colleagues (Justice T. A. V. Nathan, P. Balasubramaniam – Editor of Sunday observer, the mouth piece of Justice Party, C. A. Annadurai, the General Secretary of Justice Party, T. P. S. Ponnappan and C. Panjatcharam). He was given a reception and taken by a decorated coach fitted with two white horses! Evening, he met Dr. Ambedkar and latter took the former to his residence. Both discussed on various social and political issues from 9.00 to 10.30 p.m.
30 J—01--1944:      All India Schdeuled Caste Federation Conference was held at Kanpur under the chairperson-ship of N Shivraj.This was the second such conference of the federation and it went on till the next day i.e. 31 January 1944.
6 January 1949:    Dr. Ambedkar wrote to Pune Collector to purchase land to set up a University inTalegaon
                               The Pune Mirror newspaper dated 4 August 2011reported:
 Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar’s dream of setting up a university in Talegaon remains unfulfilled to this day. Inspired by the universities of Nalanda and Takshila, Dr, Ambedkar had bought 87 acres of land and a bungalow at Talegaon and Wadgaon in Pune district of Maharashtra. Today, all that remains of the dream is one plot of land and the Vishwaratna Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Smarak Samiti is struggling to find enough land to build a memorial.
 “Ambedkar held meetings with Sant Gadge Baba and Acharya P K Atre in Talegaon. Ambedkar first purchased 65 acres of land at Harneshwar Tekdi at a price of Rs 16,000 and later, he purchased 22 acres at Wadgaon.”
26-1-1950    Constitution of Free India came into force, granting  equality before Law
5-1-1952       Dr.Ambedkar lost Parlimentary election from Bombay
12-1-1953      Osmania University conferred on Dr.Ambedkar honorary D.Lit.Degree.
15-01-1956                                 Behan Mayavati was born
                                 Behan Mayawati, a four-time Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, is chief of Bahujan Samaj Party which is, at present, main opposition party in the Assembly of Uttar Pradesh. She is leading BSP in the UP  Vidhan Sabha elections scheduled to be held in Febuary-March in 2017.                                    
1-1-1979           Mandal Commission was formed-
                            The Mandal Commission was established in India 1-1-1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to "identify the socially or educationally backward."  It was constituted as per the mandate under article 340( Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes in India every 10 years) for the purpose of Articles 15( Prohibition of Discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth) and 16( Equality of opportunity in public employment).   It was headed by Indian parliamentarian B.P. Mandal to consider the question of seat reservations and quotas for people to redress caste discrimination, and used eleven social, economic, and educational indicators to determine backwardness. In 1980, the commission's report affirmed the affirmative action practice under Indian law whereby members of backward castes though they were also uppercast (known as Other Backward Classes (OBC), Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST)) were given exclusive access to a certain portion of government Jobs and slots in public universities, and recommended changes to these quotas, increasing them by 27% to 50%. Mobilization on caste lines had followed the political empowerment of ordinary citizens by the constitution of free India that allowed common people to politically assert themselves through the right to vote. The commission estimated that 54% of the total population (excluding SCs and STs), belonging to 3,743 different castes and communities, were ‘backward’ The number of backward castes in Central list of OBCs has now increased to 5,013 (without the figures for most of the Union Territories) in 2006 as per National Commission for Backward Classes.
7 Jan 1998: Manyawar Kanshi Ram addressed a conference of Dalits at the Roshan Ground at Hoshiarpur, Punjab[2]
Mr. Kanshi Ram, Bahujan Samaj Party supremo said that social transformation and ecomonic emancipation of Dalits could only be possible through power. Social justice alone was not required for Dalits. They could survive only if they shared power in the country, He said the main aim of his life was social and economic reforms of Dalits. He said that he had succeeded in uniting the Dalits and that was why a Dalit lady, Ms. Mayawati, became the Chief Minister of UP the largest state in the country. He said he would now concentrate on making a person from Gujjar community a Chief Minister of Rajasthan and an Adivasi a Chief Minister of Punjab. Mr. Romesh Dogra, Congress MLA from Dasuya, Mr. Naresh Thakur, former Deputy Speaker of the Punjab Vidhan Sabha and Mr. Ram Rattan, general secretary, District Congress Committee, Hoshiarpur shared also the dias with the BSP 
30 January 2000: Press release by Manyawar Kanshi Ram on the review of constitution.
The press release was on the backdrop of the Warning given by the President of India (K R Narayananan) to the Nation and Government while speaking in the Central Hall of Parliament on 27 January 2000, the 50 year of framing of Indian Constitution. He had advised the Government of India not to go in for a review of the Constitution, but to study and analyse the way the successive Governments were working to implement the Constitution and various provisions there in. The Government of India was headed by A B Vajpayee (Bhartiya Janta Party). The press release by Manyawar Kanshi Ram (Bahujan Samaj Party) is as follows:“I welcome the warning sounded by the President about the Government’s move to Review the Constitution.  It is strange that instead of clearly identifying the areas where Review or Amendment is needed, the Government is keeping everything under the cloak of secrecy, by proposing a Review of the whole Constitution.
The Constitution of India as drafted by Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar, although not fully accepted still, reflected the aspirations and hopes of the vast millions, who were made to live degraded sub human lives for centuries.  As a result of the change in the Political and Social Scenario brought by the Constitution, the shackles of the old social system have weakened, and now there is tremendous awareness and awakening in the Bahujan Samaj.  In fact, the political instability which has been witnessed in the last few years is the result of social mobility and dynamism of the Weaker Sections which has been generated by the constitutional framework.  The political stability of yester years, was the result of not strong popular base of the political parties, but the strict political control exercised by the socially dominant groups over the Bahujan Samaj.
6 January 2010: Public interest litigation from the All India Christian Federation (AICF) was filed with the Supreme Court of India seeking reservations for all Dalits irrespective of their religious faith.
The PIL (WP Civil # 579/2009) sought reservation for converted Dalits of all faiths on the same footing as extended to Scheduled Castes following Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
A Bench comprising Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan and Justice B. S. Chauhan issued a notice to the Ministry of Social Justice and Ministry of Minority Affairs for its response on the implementation of the recommendation of the National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities (NCRLM) headed by former Chief Justice of India Rangnath Misra.
Senior advocate K. K. Venugopal and D. Vidyanandam submitted the recent statement by Minority Affairs Minister Salman Khurshid that the report of NCRLM was not made public and there was a difference between the manifesto of Congress party and the recommendation by the Commission was an attempt to defeat the claims of converts.
Mr. Venugopal said the Centre had referred the NCRLM report to the National Commission for Scheduled Castes which also supported the reported recommendation for 15 per cent (10 per cent for Muslims and 5 per cent for others) reservation without disturbing 50 per cent ceiling set by the Supreme Court.
The PIL said paragraph three of the Presidential order of 1950 under Article 341 of the Constitution, which empowers the President to specify Scheduled Castes, was coming in the way of extending the benefits of reservation to Dalit converts and was upheld by the NCRLM’s seven-member committee. It sought striking down of paragraph 3 of the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order 1950 on the grounds that it is ultra vires of the Constitution. The NCRLM has prepared its report after visiting various states and among the terms of reference was to examine whether the Scheduled Caste converts suffer from social disabilities like untouchability even after embracing Christianity. The Ranganath Mishra Commission earlier declared that non-inclusion of Dalit Christians and Muslims in the SC ambit was a discrimination based on religion and goes against the Constitution of India. After a brief hearing, the Bench tagged the petition with other PILs on the issue which has been pending since 2004.The Centre had in January 2008 told the apex court that it would study the report of Misra commission which examined the issue of granting Scheduled Caste status to Dalit Christians for extending benefits of reservation to them.
The NGO had also submitted that it was the right time that the court should strike down the order requiring all Dalits to belong to a particular religion if they were to avail the SC reservation benefits as it goes beyond the mandate of Article 341(1) and violates the fundamental rights guaranteed under the Constitution.
All India United Christians Movement for Equal Rights, had said the Congress Government had in 1996 brought a Bill in Lok Sabha to amend para three of the “Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order 1950” for extending reservation benefits to Dalit Christians. There are about 20 million dalit Christians.
The PIL had claimed social standings of Dalits even after converting to Christianity has not changed and they have to face discrimination in churches also.
The demand for granting Scheduled Castes status to the Dalit Christians has been opposed in several quarters, including the SC/ST Commission which contended that they cannot enjoy two rights – that is of minority and SCs.
Citing a 2005 ruling of the apex court, in which it was said even if a tribal converted to Christianity, he or she could still avail reservation benefits as his/her status as ST remained unchanged, PIL had said the same law should be applicable to Dalits after their conversion.

References:-
 [1] Bhakta Das, A Glimpse of Scheduled Castes in Assam, book p 26. 1986
[2] Kshirsagar R K, Dalit Movement in India and Its Leaders, 1857-1956, book page 384-385. 1994
[3] Dhananjay Keer, Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission book, Pg 318
[4] K V Ramakrishna Rao, The Historic Meeting of Ambedkar, Jinnah and Periyar, A paper presented during the 21st session of South Indian History Congress held at Madurai Kamaraj University from 18 to 20 January 2001 and published in the proceedings, pp.128-136
[5] Nitin Brahme, Pune Mirror, Newspaper dated 4 August 2011
[6] The Hindu, Newspaper
  7)  The Pune Mirror newspaper dated 4 August 2011     
8) Dr.Ambedkar and His Associates by Er.H.R.Phonsa
9) Chamarjati Ka Goravshali Etihas by Satnam Singh
10) Bharat Main Dalit Jagaran aur Uskey Agardoot By  Mata Prashad( Former Governor Arnuchal Pradesh)